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Institute of Computer Technologies

Design and manufacture of high complexity multilayer PCBs

Outsourcing electronics development and PCB design services

RU

Technologies

Technological Norms of Manufacturing of Multilayer PCBs Topology:

PCB thickness from 0.30 to 8.00 mm

Maximum size:

  • for multi-layer printed circuit boards - 620.00 x 813.00 mm
  • for flexible and flex-rigid PCBs - 350,00 x 500,00 mm
  • The minimum diameter of the holes:
  • in the test specimens - 0.15 mm
  • in serial products - 0.20 mm
  • for boards based on PTFE and APPE - 0,25 mm
  • for holes with the technology of back drilling on the backplanes - 0.50 mm
  • the maximum diameter of the holes which have to be filled with resin - 0.40 mm
  • the minimal diameter of half-holes at the ends of the board - 0.30 mm

The width of the conductor and the gap between them:

Thickness

of the foil

Prototypes and test samples

Serial

boards

in inner layers, mm

12 microns(1/3 oz)

0,075/0,075

0,075/0,075

18 microns(1/2 oz)

0,075/0,075

0,075/0,075

35 microns(1 oz)

0,075/0,100

0,075/0,100

70 microns(2 oz)

0,100/0,125

0,200/0,140

100 microns(3 oz)

0,125/0,200

0,125/0,200

200 microns(6 oz)

0,200/0,400

0,200/0,410

300 microns(9 oz)

0,280/0,610

0,280/0,750

in outer layers, mm

12 microns (1/3 oz)

0,075/0,075

0,075/0,100

70 microns (2 oz)

0,150/0,175

0,150/0,200

18 microns (1/2 oz)

0,085/0,085

0,100/0,150

The ratio of the thickness of the board to the diameter of the drilling:

35microns (1 oz)

0,115/0,125

0,120/0,140

100 microns (3 oz)

0,175/0,250

0,175/0,300

ОтношEниE толщины платы к диамEтру свEрловки:

Diameter of holes

Prototypes and test samples

Serial

boards

200 microns (6 oz)

0,255/0,470

0,255/0,540

0.20 mm and less

10:1

8:1

300 microns (9 oz)

0,330/0,760

0,330/0,840

12:1

10:1

0.30 mm and less

16:1

12:1

0.80 mm and less

20:1

15:1

more then 0.80 mm

30:1

for backplanes

8:1

technology for filling with resin

8:1

for boards based on PTFE and APPE

The accuracy of the holes sizes:

  • diameter of plated holes - ± 75 microns
  • diameter of not plated holes - ± 50 microns
  • diameter of plated holes for press-fitting - ± 50 microns
  • the sizes of the grooves, countersinks and slots - ± 150 microns

Positioning accuracy of holes - ± 75 microns

Accuracy of blind grooves and hollows - ± 100 microns

Minimum clearance from the wall of metallization of a canal of drilling to the copper in  power layers:

  • in test samples and prototypes for boards with the number of layers 8 and less - 140 microns
  • in test samples and prototypes for boards with the number of layers 14 and less - 170 microns
  •  in test samples and prototypes for boards with the number of layers more than 14 - 180 microns
  •  in serial boards with the number of layers 8 and less - 180 microns
  • in serial boards with the number of layers more than 8 - 200 microns
  • for laser pinholes - 125 microns

The minimal radius of grooves and slots milling - 0.30 mm

The minimum thickness of the dielectric which has to be processed with the help of V-CUT:

  •  0,40 mm for single-scribing
  •  0,60 mm for double scribing

The maximum thickness of the dielectric which has  to be processed by V-CUT - 3,20 mm

The accuracy of scribing

  • the application and combination of lines - 0.10 mm
  • the angle of scribing - ± 5 °

The accuracy of manufacturing of conductors is:

  • for conductors which width is 0.25 mm and less in the test samples and prototypes - ± 25 microns
  •  for conductors which width is more than 0.25 mm in the test samples and prototypes - ± 38 microns
  • In serial products the accuracy of manufacturing is regulated by standards IPC-A-600G and is less than ± 20%

The minimum size of sites for BGA microcircuits: :

  • HASL SnPb - at least 0,250mm
  • HASL Pb free - at least 0,350mm
  • immersion overlayers - at least 0,175mm

The minimum distance between adjacent sites:

  • in the test specimens for boards with immersion overlayers when using the base foil of 18 microns and less - 90 microns
  • in serial boards with immersion overlayer when using the base foil of 18 microns or less - 100 microns
  • in  the test specimens for boards with overlayers of type HASL when using the base foil of 18 microns and less - 175 microns
  • in serial boards with overlayer of type HASL when using the base foil of 18 microns and less - 200 microns

The minimum size of not connected to the circuits topology elements - 0.20 mm

Available colours of serigraphy: white, yellow, black

The minimum size of elements of silkscreening:

  • in test samples and prototypes - at least 0,70mm
  • in serial boards - at least 1,00mm

Minimum width of the bridges of a mask between the sites:

  • for solder mask in green colour when using the base foil of 18 microns and less - 100 microns
  • for solder mask in other colours when using the base foil of 18 microns and less - 125 microns
  •  for solder mask of all colours when using the base foil of 35 microns - 150 microns
  • for solder mask of all colours when using the base foil of 75 microns and more - 200 mkm

Types and Parameters of Materials

Materials for the manufacture of printed circuit boards:

Type

Composition and characteristics

Tg (°C)

Dk

Name

 

Glass fiber laminate (laminated plastic based on diane epoxy resins, reinforced by fiberglass), with an operating temperature of -50 to +110 ° C

 

 

130-150

 

 

4,2-4,7

Shengyi S1141; Nanya NP-140;

Isola DE104, DE114;

KINGBOARD LAMINATES KB-6150;

ILM GF212; DooSan DS-7405.

 

 

FR4

Glass fiber laminate based on modified epoxy resins. Does not contain halogen, antimony, phosphorus. Does not release hazardous substances during combustion.

 

 

130-160

 

 

4,0-4,6

 

Nelco N4000EF;

Isola DE156, IS500;

ITEQ IT-140GBS, IT-140GTC, IT-859GTA.

 

 

FR4 halogen free

Glass fiber laminate based on mixtures of diane and multifunctional epoxy resins. Depending on the application modified by bismaleimide, triazine, and other substances. It possesses high thermal stability and higher stability of parameters at high temperatures. It can be used for the manufacture of printed circuit boards, which are mounted on the lead-free technology.

 

 

 

 

 

150-200

 

 

 

 

3,6-4,5

Shengyi S1170 S1000;

Isola FR408, IS410, FR406, GETEK;

ITEQ IT170, IT180, IT150DA;

Nelco N4000, N4350, N5000;

Panasonic Megtron 4, Megtron 6;

Elite EM-827; Grace Electron GA-170;

Nanya NP-180; Taiwan Union TU-752, TU-662;

Hitachi MCL-BE-67G(H), MCL-E-679(W), MCL-E-679F(J).

 

 

 

FR4 High Tg

Material based on modified epoxy resins. It is used for PСBs with high levels of operating potential, high humidity.

 

130-170

 

4,2-4,7

Shengyi S1160; Kingboard KB-6165;

Nelco N4000-12; ITEQ IT158A, IT180A;

Isola DE104KF.

FR-4 with high track resisitibility

Glass fiber laminate of epoxy resins of various compositions. In the manufacture of glass fabrics special types of fabric weaving are used.

 

130-180

 

3,2-4,2

Shengyi S6018;

ITEQ IT180A, IT200D;

Isola FR408HR, PCL-370HR.

 

FR-4 for the HDI structures

Material is based on a partially polymerized epoxy resin applied over a copper foil. It does not have a woven substrate.

 

130 и вышE

 

3,2-3,8

 

PCL-CF-400, PCL-HDI-390.

 

RCC

Polymers based on fluorocarbon compounds - Teflon (PTFE), polyester (APPE), reinforced by fiberglass. Printed circuit boards of high reliability, have high dielectric strength, moisture resistance, the possibility of operating under high temperatures and extreme temperatures.

 

 

140-180

 

 

2,2-4,2

Taconic, сEрии TLX, TLF, TLY, RF, TLC, TLG;

Arlon,series AD, Diclad;

Taizhou Wangling, series F4BK, TP;

Nelco N7000, N8000;

Rogers RO5870, Ultralam 2000.

 

 

Microwave (PTFE, APPE)

Polymers based on polycarbonates

(carboxylic resin)

with a particulate ceramic filler reinforced by fiberglass.

 

150-200

 

2,0-6,0

 

Rogers RO4350, RO4003, 25FR, 25N;

Nelco NH9000.

 

 

Microwave with ceramic filling

 

Composite material based on ceramic with an organic binder. It has small losses.

 

180-200

 

3,27-10

Rogers RT6010, TMM;

Taconoc CER-10.

Ceramic-based microwave

Films of little thickness made of polymerized polyimide. The material for the production of flexible and flex-rigid boards

 

195-220

 

3,3-3,8

Dupont series LF, Pyralux;

ThinFlex Polyimide;

Shengyi SFH640-2.

 

Pl (polyimide)

For the manufacture of multilayer printed circuit boards with quantity of layers  more than four we recommend the use of materials of FR4 High Tg group. These materials provide:

  • High quality and reliability of the MPBs
  • Ability of MPBs for multiple repair and reinstallation of BGA-components
  • Ability of MPBs for lead-free modes of mounting

Finishing Overlayers for Printed Circuit Boards

Types of finishing overlayers of terminal pads:

Type of coating

Description of coating

Thickness of coating, microns

 

HASL SnPb

 

2.0 - 40.0 microns at the sites of the small size the thickness is not standardized

Coating based on tin-lead eutectic alloy. It is applied by melting followed by hot air leveling. Excellent solderability, insufficient flatness, incompatibility with lead-free assembly.

 

HASL Lead Free

 

 

2.0 - 40.0 microns at the sites of the small size the thickness is not standardized

Lead-free coating based on sub- eutectic alloy of tin. It is applied by melting followed by hot air leveling. Satisfactory solderability, insufficient flatness. It complies with international directives RoHS. Application leads to a high risk of formation of intermetallic compounds.

 

ENIG

 

 

Au 0.05 - 0.10 m / Ni 3 - 5 microns

Immersion gold over the sublayer of galvanic nickel. It  is used to provide a flat surface of contact areas and

long preservation of the solderability of the PCB. Excellent solderability, compatibility with all mounting technologies.

 

ENEPIG

 

Au 0.05 - 0.10 m / Pd 0.05 - 0.12 /

Ni 3 - 5 microns

Immersion gold with underlayer of galvanic nickel and palladium. Compared with the ENIG has higher chemical resistance.

Provides better maintainability of PBs.

 

Flash Gold

 

 

Au 0.025 - 0.05 mkm /

 Ni 3 - 5 microns

Galvanic gold on the sublayer of galvanic nickel. It is used to provide a flat surface of contact areas and

long preservation of the solderability of the PCB. Good solderability, compatibility with all mounting technologies.

 

Immersion Tin

 

 

from 1.00 microns

 

 

Immersion tin. Provides a flat surface, has a good solderability and a limited period of time for

mounting. Its application leads to a high risk of formation of intermetallic compounds.

 

 

Immersion TinOm

 

 

from 1.00 microns

Immersion tin on top of the sublayer of the organic metal. It provides a flat surface, has good solderability and long term for mounting. It reduces the risk of formation of intermetallic compounds.

 

Immersion Silver

 

 

0.07 - 0.20 microns

Immersion silver. It provides a flat surface, has good solderability and long period of time for mounting. The coating is sensitive to compounds of sulfur and halogen in atmosphere.

 

Soft Gold

 

Au 1.5 - 3.0 m / Ni 3 - 5 microns

Galvanic gold over the sublayer of galvanic nickel. It is intended for unwelding of chip pins on PCBs by the gold wire with using plasma welding.

 

Hard Gold

 

Au 0.2 - 2.0 m / Ni 3 - 5 mm

Galvanic  gold on the sublayer of galvanic nickel. It is used as a topcoat of contacts of edge lamella connectors (technology Gold Fingers). It can be used as a selective topcoat of resistant elements of PCBs. It is characterized by the presence of dopant species in its composition.

Types and Parameters of Materials for Flex and Rigid-flex PCBs;

The use of rigid-flex printed circuit boards allows one to:

  • Replace the flat cables and harnesses
  • Exclude bulky connectors and improve maintainability
  •  Combine rigid printed circuit boards with cable and harness into a single unit
  • Significantly reduce the thickness of the design of electronic modules
  • Reduce the weight of the electronic modules and products in general

The advantages of using flexible and flex-rigid printed circuit boards:

  • The ability to make a compact form
  • Reduction of insertion errors due to lack of wiring
  • Resistance to multiple dynamic bending
  • Improved cooling of the unit design by reducing the resistance to air flow

Materials used for the manufacture of FPCBs:

  • Foundation - polyimide 13, 25, 50, 75 microns. Dk = 3.5
  • Adhesive - Acrylic 13, 25, 50, 75 microns. Dk = 3.6
  • Conductive layer – Copper 9,18, 35, 70 microns
  • Coating - polyimide 13, 25, 50, 75 microns. Dk = 3.5
  • Hardener - polyimide or FR4 with thickness 0.1 ÷ 1.0 mm
  • The tough part - laminate thickness of 0.1 ÷ 0.5 mm
  • Prepregs - 1080 (0.06 mm), 2116 (0.1mm)

Top coats recommended for flexible and flex-rigid printed circuit boards:

  • The organic coating - OSP
  • Immersion gold - ENIG
  • Immersion silver – ImAu

Special features of designs of flexible and rigid-flex PCBs:

The maximum number of layers:

  • in a flexible part - 8;
  • in the hard part - 14.

The minimum diameter of holes - 0.20 mm.

The minimum dielectric thickness in the flexible part - 25 microns.

The minimum width of the conductors:

  • in a flexible part - 0.10 mm;
  • in the hard part - 0.075 mm.

Hardener material for flexible cables - FR-4 or polyimide with thickness of 0.10 ÷ 1.0 mm.

In places of joint of flexible and rigid parts silicone rollers are used.

Maximum size of a group workpiece - 350.00 x 500.00 mm.

Types and Parameters of Materials for Metal core PCBs:

The advantages of Metal Core PCBs:

  • Shielding from electromagnetic fields
  • Fire protection and high thermal conductivity
  • Mechanical and dimensional stability under the impacts of vibration and shock loads
  • Good machinability

Area of application:

  • Devices that operate at high temperatures and vibration loads
  • Printed circuit boards for DC / DC converters
  • Power Modules
  • LED lamps with high heat

ICTech,s capabilities for the production of Metal core PCBs:

  • Maximum size of boards (group workpieces) - 609 x 609 mm
  • The minimum size of boards – 5.00 x 5.00 mm
  • Maximum board thickness - 5.00 mm
  • Thermal conductivity of the dielectric from 1.0 W / mK to 2.8 W / mK
  • The thickness of the dielectric from 60 microns
  • Thickness of copper from 350 microns (10oz)
  • The thickness of the base from 0.8 mm to 3.0 mm
  • Base material: aluminum, copper, iron, steel
  • Minimum size of not metallized holes - 0.50 mm

Manufacturer

Name of the substrate material

Laird (Thermagon)

T-lam SS 1K04; T-lam SS1K06;T-lam SS 1K08

ARLON

ML99; ML92

Bergquist

HT-04503; HT-07006; LTI-04503; LTI-06005; MP-06503; CML-11006

ITEQ

IT-859; IT-889

CHAO SHUN

CCAF-01; CCAF-04; CCAF-05; CCAF-06

HeroSail (Tongling)

HRA-5100; HRA-5105; HRA-5110; HRA-5115

Venteq

VT-44A; VT-4A1; VT-4A2; VT-4A3

Totking

T-110; T-111; T-112; T-113; T-200; T-300; T-500

Surface treatment of the metal base:

  • For copper - galvanic nickel, galvanic gold with nickel sublayer
  • For aluminum - anodizing, oxidation, passivation, roughening
  • For iron and steel - galvanic nickel, chrome vanadium coating, powder paint

Since the boards with metal base are mainly used for high-current technique and have rather thick copper of current-conducting pattern, the technological requirements for the resolution of technical processes for forming a pattern, are not strict.

Types and Parameters of Materials for Microwave PCBs:

A distinctive feature of microwave printed circuit boards is a wide range of high-frequency signals that are distributed through strip lines of transmissions. This fact is reflected in the special features of design of the microwave circuit boards and makes special demands on the parameters of dielectrics and the workmanship of  elements of the print pattern.

In the manufacture of microwave printed circuit boards high-frequency laminates are used. These materials are reinforced by glass fiber polymer and ceramic thermoset laminates with a little tangent of an angle of dielectric losses and a wide range of dielectric coefficient.

A separate area is the production of microwave printed circuit boards based on hydrocarbon ceramics, which combines the best properties of materials based on teflon and ceramic materials.

Hydrocarbon ceramic has the best workability, it allows to use it in combination Printed circuit bords.

The advantages of using high-frequency materials:

  • High stability of electrical parameters in a wide range of temperatures and frequencies
  • High resistance to temperature
  • High dimensional stability under different climatic conditions.

Material

Dk

Df

T. cond. W/m°C

Z-Axis CTE ppm/°C

Isola G 200/GI 180

3,90 - 4,10

0,009 - 0,013

0,48

140

 

Taizhou Wangling Series  F4T, F4BK, TF, TP

 

2.30 - 6.00; 9,60; 10,20;

10,50; 11,00 - 16.00

 

0,001 and less

 

 

-

 

 

0,75 - 1,00 (%)

 

Rogers RO4003

3,38

0,0022

0,64

46

Rogers ULTRALAM

2,40 - 2,60

0,0019

0,50

150

Nelco N7000

3,90

0,0095

0,50

1,70 (%)

Nelco N9000

2,00 - 2,60

0,0006-0,0022

-

150 - 260

Arlon AD320

3,20

0,0030

0,24

128

Taconic TLC

2,75 - 3,20

0,0030

0,24

70

Taconic TLY

2,17 - 2,40

0,0009

0,22

280

Taconic TLX

2,45 - 2,65

0,0019

0,14

140

Taconic RF-35

3,50

0,0028

0,35

64

Rogers TMM10i

9,8

0,0022

0,76

20

Taconic CER-10

10

0,0035

-

46

Special features of microwave printed circuit boards are the lack of the solder mask on the entire board or on its substantial part, as well as the use of thin topcoats, which provide a smooth, flat surface -Immersion tin and Immersion silver.

In preparation for the design, please, consult with ICTech specialists about special features of the materials used and their availability in the warehouses of manufacturers. This will enable to create the correct design of microwave printed circuit boards, which does not require modifications and revisions in preparation for production.